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背景知識 -文化篇，不可不知。 potlatch “誇富宴”(CBT/PBT JJ考古題)
potlatch是人類學家馬塞爾‧牟斯(Marcel Mauss)所稱「禮物經濟」整體性現象的例證，它具有宗教性、 神話性、法律性和經濟性，是社會結構展現的現象（它把部落、宗族和家庭聚在一起）。牟斯指出有三種義務構成此「禮物經濟」儀式的. 本質：「贈予」、「接受」和「回贈」。
馬塞爾‧牟斯在其名著《禮物》(1925)中說，盛行於南太平洋美利內西亞群中的庫拉圈(Kula ring)交易方式和盛行於阿拉斯加至西雅圖的西北太平洋海岸印第安人中的誇富宴(Potlatch)風俗，都是強迫送禮和強迫還禮的典型例子。此種交換(exchange)活動是義務性 (obligatory)，不能不做。交換的風格是非常誇大、非常浪費的，沒有底線。交換的意義牽涉到政治、經濟、宗教、法律等所有層面，沒有界限。在饋贈的背後，隱藏著交換的動機和保證交換得以順利實現的權力機制。
"Potlatch is a festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of the North pacific Coast of North America, including the Salish and Kwakiutl of Washington and British Columbia."
The potlatch takes the form of governance, economy, social status and continuing spiritual practices. A potlatch, usually involving ceremony, includes celebration of births, rites of passages, weddings, funerals, puberty,and honoring of the deceased. Through political, economic and social exchange, it is a vital part of these Indigenous people's culture. Although protocol differs among the Indigenous nations, the potlatch could involve a feast, with music, dance, theatricality and spiritual ceremonies. The most sacred ceremonies are usually observed in the winter.
Within it, hierarchical relations within and between clans, villages, and nations, are observed and reinforced through the distribution of wealth, dance performances, and other ceremonies. Status of families are raised by those who do not have the most resources, but distribute the resources. The host demonstrates their wealth and prominence through giving away the resources gathered for the event, which in turn prominent participants reciprocate when they hold their own potlatches.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, gifts included storable food (oolichan [candle fish] oil or dried food), canoes, and slaves among the very wealthy, but otherwise not income-generating assets such as resource rights. The influx of manufactured trade goods such as blankets and sheet copper into the Pacific Northwest caused inflation in the potlatch in the late eighteenth and earlier nineteenth centuries. Some groups, such as the Kwakwaka'wakw, used the potlatch as an arena in which highly competitive contests of status took place. In rare cases, goods were actually destroyed after being received. The catastrophic mortalities due to introduced diseases laid many inherited ranks vacant or open to remote or dubious claim—providing they could be validated—with a suitable potlatch.
Sponsors of a potlatch give away many useful items such as food, blankets, worked ornamental mediums of exchange called "coppers", and many other various items. In return, they earned prestige. To give a potlatch enhanced one’s reputation and validated social rank, the rank and requisite potlatch being proportional, both for the host and for the recipients by the gifts exchanged. Prestige increased with the lavishness of the potlatch, the value of the goods given away in it.
the Potlatch Feast.