and / but / or / so
a. My friend is smart and handsome.
b. Study hard, and you’ll pass the test.
a. The ring is good but expensive.
b. I love to go swimming, but I don’t have time to do it.
Which one is your favorite, swimming or fishing?
(2) 具有選擇性，疑問句不需回答yes / no。
The little boy can’t listen or speak.
Tim or I am going to wash the cars.
Get up early, or you’ll be late for work.
I didn’t catch the bus, so I was late for school.
Jerry was sick, so he didn’t come.
both A and B…
1. “both A and B…”表示「A和B兩者都…」
3. “both A and B…”當主詞時，動詞用複數。
a. She likes both painting and drawing.
b. Both Harry and Mike are my friends.
1. “not only A…but (also)B…”表示「不僅A…而且B…」。
2. “not only …but (also)…”與”both A and B”使用時一樣，A與B的詞性必須一致。
3. “not only A but (also)B”若當主詞時，其後動詞單複數要視B而定。
a. I can play not only baseball but (also) football.
b. Many people not only watched the show but also took lots of pictures.
c. I work hard not only for myself but (also) for my wife.
d. Not only you but (also) Jerry swims often.
1. “either A or B”表示「不是A就是B」，兩者當中其中一個。
2. “either A or B”與”not only, but also”使用時的規定一樣，A與B的詞性必須一致。
3. “either A or B”若當主詞時，其後動詞單複數要視B而定。
a. I can either go to the movie or watch it on TV.
b. Either you or she has to close this door.
when / while（當…的時候）
3. when / while連接兩個未來式的句子，附屬子句要使用現在簡單式代替未來式。
a. When I walked home, I saw Tim.
b. I was doing my homework while Cathy was cooking.
c. While Jacky was lying on the bed, his brother came in.
d. When school begins, I will use my leisure time better.
a. If you can’t help me, please let me know.
b. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.
a. Because I am your parent, you have to listen to me.
b. Julia will not come to the party because she went back to Taiwan .
c. Because my teacher knows it, he will tell my mother.
before / after（在…之前／之後）
a. Before my parents come back, you have to leave.
b. My sister ate her breakfast before she went out.
c. After she does her homework, she usually surfs the Net for four hours.
d. I will tell Ken the fact after he finds it out.
句型：so +（形容詞／副詞）…that +完整子句（為一結果句）
Susan is so pretty that many boys like her.
Mr. Flitch works so hard that he sleeps little.
so…that… : John is so young that he doesn’t know much.
too…to… : John is too young to know much.
enough to…: John is not old enough to know much.
a. I have learned to play the piano since I was in elementary school.
b. It has been / is two years since he left for the U.K.
c. Since you are my best friend, I have to do my best to help you.
a. Never put off what you can do today until tomorrow.
b. I studied Math until two o’clock in the morning.
a. Nothing is more important than your health.
b. Nancy speaks Chinese much faster than I (do).
though / although（雖然）
though / although在句中不可以和but同時出現。
Though / Although I am not smart, I study very hard.
as soon as （一…就…）
1. as soon as連接兩個動作，說明這兩個動作幾乎同時發生。
As soon as Claire came home, she was caught by the her parents.
As soon as I see Sunny, I’ll tell her to call you.
as long as （只要）
1. 用法等同if ，其所引導出的附屬子句是為一種條件。
a. As long as you don’t know a new word, you have to look it up in the dictionary.
b. As long as you do well on the exam, I’ll buy you a new motorbike.
Ⅰ.there is / there are（有…）是表示一種存在的狀態或事實，使用型式有：
1. there is +單數名詞／there are +複數名詞（有…）
a. There is a girl over there.
b. There are many flowers in the park.
2. Is / Are there…?（那裡有…嗎？）
a. Is there any pen on the desk?
b. Are there any students in the classroom?
3. How many… are there…（那裡有多少…？）
How many girls are there in her class?
4. 不同時態的變化型：there was / were（過去式）；there will be / is going to be（未來式）；there has / have been（完成式）。
a. There were a lot of people at the pub last night.
b. There is going to be a typhoon next Wednesday.
c. There has been too much trouble for me. I’m very upset.
a. David is a good student, isn’t he?
b. You are not smart at all, are you?
c. I am your best friend, am I not?
d. Playing basketball is a lot of fun, isn’t it?
e. There are some boys in the ground, aren’t there?
a. Helen doesn’t have to do that, does she?
b. Kim did her homework carefully, didn’t she?
a. You have learned about English, haven’t you?
b. Tina should take out the garbage, shouldn’t she?
c. You won’t tell me the truth, will you?
(4) 句中若有never, seldom, no, nothing, little, few等字詞時，本身已有否定的意思，所以附加問句要用肯定句。
a. There is no textbook in your room, is there?
b. Dennis seldom goes to the concert, does he?
c. Ken has never been there before, has he?
2. am, is, are等be動詞的原形為be。
Tim, close your eyes.
Be a good child.
Study harder, and you will do well on the exam.
Don’t + Vr
Don’t open the door.
Don’t sit over there, sir.
Please close the window.
Talk to me, please. = please talk to me.
Please open your book, Dennis.
＝Dennis, please open your book.
Please don’t stand up, Mike.
Ⅳ.that + 子句 that用來在句中引導出完整的子句。其用法有：
a. Dad said (that) Mom has been to the UK for many times.
b. Doctors tell us (that) smoking is bad for our health.
2. that 子句亦可當主詞。
a. That smoking does you bad is true. （吸煙對你有害是真的。）
＝It is true that smoking does you bad.
b. That the earth is round is true.（地球是圓的是真的。）
＝It is true that the earth is round.
句型：What +名詞（形容詞 + 名詞）！＝How + 形容詞（+ 名詞）！
a. What a boy!
b. What a small world! = How small a world!
c. How smart a cat! = What a smart cat!
Ⅵ.Who-to + 動詞 who-to動詞為名詞片語，代替原為”wh- + 主詞 + should / can / have to…+ 動詞”的句子，其先決條件是前後句的主詞相同才可將句子簡化。
I don’t know what I should do. = I don’t know what to do.
We should remember when we have to go.
= We should remember when to go.
Did Tom know why he has to leave? = Did Tom know why to leave?
Mary has no idea where she can go. = Mary has no idea where to go.
Tell me which I should take. = Tell me which to take.
My friends want to know who they can meet in the station.
= My friends want to know who to meet in the station.
Tim didn’t know how he could get home.
= Tim didn’t know how to get home.
Ⅶ.whether…or not “whether…or not / if…”（是否）是用以表示「推測語氣」的連接詞，與that引導出肯定語氣的完整子句不同。
a. I don’t know whether it will snow (or not).
b. I am not sure if she can come.
1. I can’t tell you whether he has come or not. → 語氣不確定。
2. I can’t tell you that he has come. → 語氣肯定。
3. I am not sure if he is my coach. → 語氣不確定。
4. I am sure that he is my coach. → 語氣肯定。 ~~邢天馨