BAKA RAINFOREST PEOPLE YODELLERS
民族音樂學者Colin Turnbull注意到匹美人的複音音樂最大特色是每個小節音符一律下行，他認為這是因為匹美人住在雨林裡，仰天看到高大的林冠，自覺渺小所致。此外，匹美人的複音音樂雖多為四四拍，有著嚴格的輪唱曲（round）規則，卻會在出現旋律轉位後，又回到絕對的和諧。Colin Turnbull認為這樣的輪唱曲規則滿足了匹美人性格裡相矛盾的兩個面向，一方面是自由自在的個人主義，另一方面卻又遵奉絕對的社群和諧。匹美人的複音音樂也採取類似岳得爾調（yodel）的唱法，真聲、假嗓交互使用，形成一種波浪的感覺。唱詞多為擬聲字，並無一定意義。
Kumuka 1993 -- Efe Pygmy Visit, Zaire (D.R. Congo) Pt. 2 /5
This is a video document, 49 minutes in total length, of the interaction between Western adventure travelers and one of the oldest human societies in central Africa.
In June 1993, a group of tourists (American, Australian, British, Canadian, French) on a commercial overland trek (Kumuka Trans-Africa) visited an Efe pygmy camp named "Bandikoda", on the Laya River, in the eastern Ituri forest. This camp was situated a short pirogue ride downriver from the village of Ngeleza, about halfway between Bunia and Beni, in what was then the Haut-Zaire region of Zaire, now Orientale province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (ca. 1° 16' N, 29° 42' W). On some maps, this river is named "Lowje" or "Loya River", but it is not the "Loya River" in the MSN Encarta World Atlas - that river is situated two degrees further west in the Ituri.
Our guides were Lese villagers, non-Pygmy agriculturalists who exchange their rice, tobacco, manioc and some manufactured articles for meat and honey obtained by the Efe hunters and foragers. The Efe and Lese communicate in mutually intelligible dialects of the KiLese language. The Efe at Bandikoda had become habituated to visits by "mazungus" (foreign tourists, white people), and they graciously permitted five of us to pitch our tents and spend the entire day and night in their midst. The Efe welcomed us with forty-five minutes of singing and dancing, accompanied by drums and honey whistles. There followed some bartering for souvenirs, including the "likembe" thumb piano, the five-stringed "zoma" harp, pounded bark loincloths, and the "asuba" monkey-skin wristband worn by hunters -- the sound of the bowstring snapping against it alerts other hunters in the vicinity.
Some travelers then had designs drawn on their hands and faces by the Efe women -- these took several weeks to rub off! In the afternoon, we joined the males on a hunt through the forest; singing as they went, they triangulated their prey with hunting dogs who wear resonant wooden boxes. The men cover their skins with the yellow powder from a tree before returning to camp. In the evening, we cooked a meal of spaghetti and shared it with our inquisitive hosts.
Further reading -
Grinker, Roy Richard (1994). Houses in the rain forest: ethnicity and inequality among farmers and foragers in Central Africa, Berkeley: University of California Press. [on the relationship between the Lese and Efe]
Wheeler, William F. (2000). Efe pygmies: archers of the African rain forest. New York : Rizzoli. [large format photographs of the Efe on Nduye River, north of Epulu]